SOTERIA Throwable Featured on What Happened Next, Discovery Channel UK

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers

What Happened Next is the exciting Discovery Channel programme that explores the scientific explanations and theories behind some of the most unbelievable, scary, funny and jaw-dropping footage of mayhem, destruction, action and stunts ever caught on camera. This interactive 10-part series features several clips that get paused right before their big, dramatic moments.

Working together with Linnovate Technology, as well as the scientists behind SOTERIA Throwable, What Happenned Next has featured the amazing effect that SOTERIA Throwable can have on fires, as well as the internal chemical reactions that make the world's simplest fire extinguisher earn its title.

Click play on the video above to see the segment featuring SOTERIA Throwable on the Discovery Channel Analyzes the Technology Behind SOTERIA Throwable

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers has been explaining the inner machinations of everything from toasters to supercomputers since its inception in 1998. The award-winning website has featured thousands of amazing articles, videos and podcasts discussing, dissecting, and answering the one simple question: How does it work?

This time, has trained its signts on SOTERIA Throwable, the world's simplest fire extinguisher. What they've discovered is that despite the simplicity of use, SOTERIA Throwable actually contains a vast amount of innovative technology.

Click on the image above to access the full article.

SOTERIA Fire Extinguishers Featured on Idea Connection

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers

SOTERIA Fire Extinguishers are an innovative product that are making an impact in the world of fire fighting. Recently featured on Idea Connection, these innovative extinguishers are examples of how technology can inform and transcend conventional notions of fire fighting.

The article explains how SOTERIA Throwable functions, detailing the unique mechanical and chemical processes that the simple act of throwing initiates onto a fire. "When a fire occurs, you have very little time to react. Precious seconds are wasted with heavy and complicated conventional fire extinguishers. These wasted seconds could mean the difference between life and death."

Click on the image above to access the full article.


The Different Types of Fire Classes

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers

In the firefighting industry, fires are identified by their type based on several criteria. These types are called Fire Classes. It is important to know what Fire Class a fire belongs to as most extinguishing methods are restricted to only certain Fire Classes. Therefore, not every Fire Class can be put out by just any fire extinguisher. There are multiple Fire Class standards, such as the NFPA used in the US and the EN 2:1992 in Europe. However, these Fire Class systems are mostly similar.
Below is a chart of the different type of fires.

Fire Class Symbol

Fuel/Heat source




class A fire pictogram 

Ordinary combustibles

"Ordinary combustible" fires are the most common type of fire, and are designated Class A under both systems. These occur when a solid, organic material such as wood, cloth, rubber, or some plastics become heated to their ignition point. At this point the material undergoes combustion and will continue burning as long as the four components of the fire tetrahedron (heat, fuel, oxygen, and the sustaining chemical reaction) are available.

Class A

Class A


Class B fire pictogram

Flammable liquids and gases

These are fires whose fuel is flammable or combustible liquid or gas. The US system designates all such fires "Class B". In the European/Australian system, flammable liquids are designated "Class B", while burning gases are separately designated "Class C". These fires follow the same basic fire tetrahedron (heat, fuel, oxygen, chemical reaction) as ordinary combustible fires, except that the fuel in question is a flammable liquid such as gasoline, or gas such as natural gas.

Class B

Class B

 Class C fire pictogram


Class C



Electrical equipment

Electrical fires are fires involving potentially energized electrical equipment. The US system designates these "Class C"; the Australian system designates them "Class E". This sort of fire may be caused by short-circuiting machinery or overloaded electrical cables. These fires can be a severe hazard to firefighters using water or other conductive agents: Electricity may be conducted from the fire, through water, the firefighter's body, and then earth. Electrical shocks have caused many firefighter deaths.

Class C




Combustible metals

Certain metals are flammable or combustible. Fires involving such are designated "Class D" in both systems. Examples of such metals include sodium, titanium, magnesium, potassium, uranium, lithium, plutonium, and calcium. Magnesium and titanium fires are common. When one of these combustible metals ignites, it can easily and rapidly spread to surrounding ordinary combustible materials.

Class D

Class D


Class F fire pictogram


Cooking oil or fat

Fires that involve cooking oils or fats are designated "Class K" under the American system, and "Class F" under the European/Australasian systems. Though such fires are technically a subclass of the flammable liquid/gas class, the special characteristics of these types of fires, namely the higher flash point, are considered important enough to recognize separately. Saponification can be used to extinguish such fires, as can dry-powder, CO2 or, for small fires, mechanical smothering. Appropriate fire extinguishers may also have hoods over them that help extinguish the fire.

Class K

Class F

Just like all other fire extinguishers, SOTERIA Fire Extinguishers are designed to handle certain fires. SOTERIA Throwable is formulated to swiftly and safely extinguish Class A and Class B fires, the most common household or residential fires. SOTERIA Kitchen is designed to put out Class K (US) or Class F (EU) fires.

Knowledge of Fire Classes can be an important tool during emergencies, so learning about them could save your life.


"Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia: Fire Classes. Retrieved 4/18/13 []”

Safety: Who’s At Stake Here?

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers

We attempt to mitigate danger by doing various things around our home. We install sturdy locks on our doors to keep us safe. We ensure that our buildings are structurally sound to withstand bad weather. We install house alarms and smoke detectors to prepare for the worst.We do all this to protect ourselves and the ones we love, but have we done enough to ensure that our loved ones can protect themselves in our absence?

Disturbingly, fire death statistics show that the elderly are substantially more likely to die due to fires than any other age group. It is often hard to put ourselves in their shoes, but it is important to understand that current firefighting equipment is simply not designed for use by the young, weak, disabled or elderly. As a result of this, the most vurnurable among us become the most likely to lose their lives in a fire. Fire fighting tools should be designed to be accessible to everyone and for all contingencies. Purchasing a fire extinguisher and hoping that the person who is forced to use it will be able to is a risk that need not be taken. If we can design and install ramps on the steps of buildings that ensure that differently abled people can access them, we should be able to design and install fire extinguishers give these same people the ability to escape the very same building in the event of a fire.
This is where Soteria stands in the conversation. We know who’s at stake here when we talk about fires. We know how impossible it may seem for some people to face the danger of fire. We know we need to make fire fighting simpler. And we have.


Source: The Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services (


Dangerous Misconception: Fire Will Never Affect Me

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers 

Most of us would like to think that we can insulate ourselves from the many dangers and risks that are prevalent in these modern times, yet many of us can recall witnessing such unfortunate incidents having happened to other people. Technology today allows us to prevent fire from even becoming a problem needing solving in the first place, yet this scarcely means that fire will never affect us. In fact, according to research done by the Centre for Environmental Safety and Risk Engineering and School of Psychology in Australia, human adults are likely to have at least one residential fire experience in their adult life. With a probability as high as that, one should not assume that fire will not affect oneself at any given time. It pays to always be vigilant, and it pays to always be prepared for contingencies. Fire danger is far from a distant possibility, even in today’s day and age.

Barnett, M., Bruck, D. and Jago, A., 2007. Mean Annual Probability Of Having A Residential Fire Experience Throughout A Lifetime: Development And Application Of A Methodology.


What is Fire?

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers


Chances are you’re familiar with the concept of fire. It’s a beautiful, dancing, shimerring substance that emits heat and light. It is mesmerizing to watch, and comforting to be around on cold winter nights. It also has the capacity to ruin lives, devastate homes and kill without prejudice. Yet the science behind one of the most useful and deadly natural phenomenons known to man is surprisingly not widely known. According to Wikipedia:

“Fires start when a flammable and/or a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient quantity of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas or another oxygen-rich compound (though non-oxygen oxidizers exist that can replace oxygen), is exposed to a source of heat or ambient temperature above the flash point for the fuel/oxidizer mix, and is able to sustain a rate of rapid oxidation that produces a chain reaction. This is commonly called the fire tetrahedron. Fire cannot exist without all of these elements in place and in the right proportions. For example, a flammable liquid will start burning only if the fuel and oxygen are in the right proportions. Some fuel-oxygen mixes may require a catalyst, a substance that is not directly involved in any chemical reaction during combustion, but which enables the reactants to combust more readily.

Once ignited, a chain reaction must take place whereby fires can sustain their own heat by the further release of heat energy in the process of combustion and may propagate, provided there is a continuous supply of an oxidizer and fuel.”

Removing any one of these elements will extinguish the fire. However, this is easier said than done. Think about what can be done with your bare hands when it comes fighting a fire. It is impossible to release all the oxygen from an area. Your body is not capable of safely cooling down the fire either. Trying to handle the fuel without protection would be a foolish endeavor, and likewise attempting to control the chain reaction can easily get you hurt. Thus, while the mechanics behind the creation of fire may be simple enough, controlling and extinguishing a fire can be a dangerous and daunting task without the right tools.

Fire Tetrahedron

Dangerous Misconception: Water Puts Out All Fires

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers



Ask a child what the opposite of fire is, she’ll probably tell you water. Since young, we’ve been ingrained with the notion that water is the best solution for fighting fire. Whilst it is without doubt an effective solution to fighting fire, it is not a one-stop solution for all types of fires. In fact, some fires can be made worse when water is added to the mix.

When oil, fat or petrochemicals catch fire, it is very dangerous to try to put it our using water. When water is added, a phenomenon known as boilover occurs. This happens because of the difference in density between water and flammable liquids. The water will sink to underneath the fuel before vaporizing rapidly and ejecting itself (and the fuel) upwards, creating a massive fireball.

So, when facing any fire with liquid as its fuel, it is important to remember: DO NOT USE WATER!
Remembering this may be vital to ensuring your safety.



The Problem with Conventional Fire Extinguishers

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers


In the early 1800’s, British Captain George William Manby invented the first modern fire extinguisher. It consisted of a copper vessel of 3 gallons (13.6 liters) of potassium carbonate solution contained within compressed air. When activated, the solution is pushed out of the canister through the nozzle due to the difference in pressure. Today, about 200 year after Manby’s ingenious invention, the conventional fire extinguisher has remained largely the same, with the only difference being that instead of copper, more resistant and strong materials are used for the canister and a variety of different extinguishing solutions are provided. Still, the concept of a pressurized canister that Manby pioneered has remained the main mechanism behind the modern fire extinguisher for the past two centuries.

While this kind of fire extinguisher was indeed a marvel when it was introduced back in the 1800’s, it was not without a few caveats. For one, the canister and contents were extremely heavy. Due to the pressurized nature of the extinguisher, the vessel containing the solution needs to be strong enough to withstand the intense pressure. This, compounded by the weight of the various extinguishing contents themselves, makes carrying a conventional fire extinguisher a daunting task indeed. This issue is further exacerbated by the fact that fire extinguishers can be extremely complicated to operate. Modern fire extinguishers can come with a variety of pins, nozzles, valves and levers that do not allow for speedy and effective firefighting. Some companies even require their employees to take full courses on how to use a fire extinguisher. If such training is required for some people, how are normal untrained folks going to know how to use one correctly? Having to operate what is essentially a machine with one hand whilst carrying the heavy vessel with the other is more than enough to cause problems for the user, while still not accounting for the added stress and panic that an out of control fire can induce. This hypothetical scenario is also operating under the assumption that the user is a regular adult person. Imagine if the only person available to fight the fire was a child, a differently abled person, or an elderly senior citizen. Such a feat would be nearly impossible for these people, yet the conventional fire extinguisher remains heavy, bulky and overly complicated.

Conventional fire extinguishers are also capable of corroding and exploding, ironically making it a safety device that may not be too safe itself. Beyond that, the need for regular (usually annual) maintenance and refilling of the extinguisher can incur heavy costs (not to mention inconvenience).

The conventional fire extinguisher has come a long way in its time. However, the perception that it remains the most effective means of fire fighting is questionable. In today’s age of modern remakes of old movies, fusion food and hybrid cars, isn’t it time for us to take a step back and rethink the fire extinguisher?



The Importance of Fire Safety

by Soteria Fire Extinguishers

In this modern age, it is a marvel that fire, one of the essential elements of human innovation and discovery, has remained as dangerous as it has been useful to humanity. It is easy to forget about the danger that fire poses. It only takes a few seconds for a tiny flame to engulf an entire home.

Fire destroys everything it touches, it is its nature. Most of us go about our busy lives unaware of the devastation that fire can cause to life, limb and property, only sobering to the reality of fire danger when it has affected us or one of our loved ones directly. On average in the United States in 2010, someone died in a fire every 169 minutes, and someone was injured every 30 minutes (Karter, 2011). 85% of these fires occurred at home. Over $7.5 billion is spent each year on fire-related injuries and billions more on property damage or destruction. The worst part about these statistics is that fire danger is completely preventable and solvable.

A home equipped with proper firefighting tools and measures has a much lower risk of property damage or injury from fire. Many modern homes today are not equipped with firefighting solutions, let alone fire prevention tools or fire warning systems. Even when a home is equipped with fire extinguishers, many people struggle with the complexity of the device’s mechanisms and heavy bulk.

It is important to understand fire risk and take preventive measures. Failing to act can prove devastating to you and your loved ones.


Karter MJ. Fire loss in the United States during 2010,. Quincy (MA): National Fire Protection Association, Fire Analysis and Research Division; 2011.